Bedsonia; Chlamydia Antibodies Differentiation Panel; Chlamydia Antibodies, IgG and IgM; Chlamydia Differentiation Antibody Panel; Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR); Chlamydia pneumoniae, IgG and IgM; Chlamydia psittaci, IgG and IgM; Chlamydia Species Differentiation Antibody Panel; Chlamydia TWAR; Chlamydophila; Chlamydophila pneumonia; Chlamydophila pneumonia; Chlamydophila psattaci; Chlamydophila psittaci; LGV (Lymphogranuloma Venereum); Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) Antibodies; Ornithosis; Psittacosis; Psittacosis Antibodies; TWAR; TWAR (Chlamydia pneumoniae)
Centrifuge and aliquot serum into a plastic vial.
Goss hemolysis, Gross lipemia, Gross icterus, Heat-inactivated specimen
Antichlamydial IgG can persist for years. All results from chlamydial serologies must correlate with clinical history and other data available to the physician.
Specimens collected too early during primary infection may not contain detectable antibodies. If chlamydial infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected 10 to 21 days later and tested in parallel with the original specimen.
During a primary Chlamydia infection, the early antibody response may be cross-reactive with multiple Chlamydia species.
This assay does not report antibodies detected against Chlamydia trachomatis. Sera from suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) should be tested by a Lymphogranuloma Venereum Differentiation Antibody Panel. LGV testing is not performed by Mayo Clinic Laboratories; call 800-533-1710 for assistance. Due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of Chlamydia serologic tests, patients with suspected C trachomatis infection should be tested by a molecular method (eg, CTRNA / Chlamydia trachomatis, Nucleic Acid Amplification, Varies) when clinical manifestations are present.
Members of the family Chlamydiaceae are small, nonmotile, gram-negative, obligate intracellular organisms that grow in the cytoplasm of host cells. While there are at least 9 species within the Chlamydia genus, 3 are clinically significant, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci.
The chlamydial life cycle can be divided into 2 distinct phases: an extracellular, nonreplicating, infectious stage and an obligate intracellular, replicating, noninfectious stage. The infectious form, or elementary body (EB), attaches to the target cell membrane and enters the cell via a phagosome. After cell entry, the EB reorganizes into reticulate particles (forming inclusion bodies) and binary fission begins. After 18 to 24 hours, reticulate particles condense to form EBs. These new EBs are released, beginning another infection cycle.
C psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a disease characterized by pneumonia, headache, altered mentation, and hepatosplenomegaly. Psittacosis is acquired by airborne transmission from infected birds.
C pneumoniae (formerly known as Taiwan acute respiratory agent and, more recently, as Chlamydophila pneumoniae) causes pneumonia in humans. It is unique because it is a primary pathogen of humans, is spread from human to human, and apparently has no animal or bird host. C pneumoniae is responsible for approximately 10% of pneumonia cases.
IgMChlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci> or =1:10IgM endpoint titers of 1:10 or more are considered presumptive evidence of infection.
<1:10IgM endpoint titers below 1:10 suggest that the patient does not have a current infection. These antibody levels may be found in patients with either no history of chlamydial infection or those with past infection whose antibody levels have dropped below detectable levels.IgG:C pneumoniae> or =1:512IgG endpoint titers of 1:512 or more are considered presumptive evidence of current infection.
> or =1:64 and <1:512A single specimen endpoint titer of 1:64 to 1:512 should be considered evidence of infection at an undetermined time. A second specimen collected 10 to 21 days after the original collection should be tested in parallel with the first. If the second specimen exhibits a titer 1:512 or more or a 4-fold increase over that of the initial specimen, current (acute) infection is indicated. Unchanging titers from 1:64 to 1:512 suggest past infection.
<1:64IgG endpoint titers below 1:64 suggest that the patient does not have a current infection. These antibody levels may be found in patients with either no history of chlamydial infection or those with past infection whose antibody levels have dropped below detectable levels.
C pneumoniae antibody is detectable in 25% to 45% of adults tested.
C psittaci> or =1:64IgG endpoint titers of 1:64 or more are considered presumptive evidence of current infection.