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26468 Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker Reflex, Serum (HTGR)

Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker Reflex, Serum (HTGR)
Test Code: HTGRSO
Synonyms/Keywords

​Anti Thyroglobulin Antibody, HTG (Human Thyroglobulin), TG (Thyroglobulin), Thyroglobulin Antibody, Thyroglobulin Assay for Thyroid Cancer, Thyroglobulin HTC (Human Thyro)

Test Components

​This test begins with the analysis of thyroglobulin antibody by immunoassay. If the thyroglobulin antibody result is negative (<1.8 IU/mL), then thyroglobulin testing will be performed by immunoassay.

If the thyroglobulin antibody result is positive (> or =1.8 IU/mL), then thyroglobulin testing will be performed by mass spectrometry.

Useful For

​Reporting of accurate thyroglobulin results, depending on the antithyroglobulin antibodies status of the patient

Accurate measurement of serum thyroglobulin in patients with known or suspected antithyroglobulin autoantibodies or possible heterophile antibodies

Specimen Requirements
Specimen TypePreferred Container/TubeAcceptable Container/TubeSpecimen VolumeSpecimen Minimum Volume
(allows for 1 repeat)
Pediatric Minimum Volume
(no repeat)
​Serum Red​Red Top Tube (RTT)​1 mL​1 mL
Collection Processing Instructions

Patient Preparation: For 12 hours before specimen collection do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins.

Specimen Stability Information
Specimen TypeTemperatureTime
​Serum Red ​​Refrigerated (preferred)​7 days
​Frozen​30 days
Rejection Criteria
Gross hemolysis
Interference

​Thyroglobulin Antibody:

Antithyroglobulin values determined by different methodologies might vary significantly and cannot be directly compared with one another. Some patients might show to be antibody-positive by some methods and antibody-negative by others. Comparing values from different methods might lead to erroneous clinical interpretation.

Thyroglobulin by Mass Spectrometry:

Rare normal amino acid sequence variations within thyroglobulin (Tg) can cause a false-low result in the Tg mass spectrometry assay, if they happen to be present in the Tg proteotypic peptides that are used for Tg quantification.


While the exact prevalence of such changes is unknown, the validation data on large sample numbers indicate that this affects less than 1% of samples. In the heterozygote state, the result would be an apparent reduction in Tg concentration by about 50%, while the homozygous state (<0.01%) is predicted to result in total loss of signal. Therefore, if the results of the mass spectrometry measurement are much lower than those obtained previously (within 3-6 months) with an immunometric immunoassay, this possibility should be considered. In this event, alert Mayo Clinic Laboratories as soon as possible, and an attempt will be made to resolve the discrepancy.

Thyroglobulin by Immunoassay:

Thyroid autoantibodies may interfere with the measurement of Tg by immunometric methods leading to an underestimation of the Tg present. Heterophile antibodies may also interfere. Specimens with thyroglobulin concentrations greater than 250,000 ng/mL may "hook" and appear to have markedly lower levels when assayed by immunoassay.

Performing Laboratory Information
Performing LocationDay(s) Test PerformedReport AvailableMethodology/Instrumentation
​Mayo Clinic Laboratories​Monday through Saturday​2 to 4 daysImmunoenzymatic Assay
Reference Lab
Reference Range Information
Performing LocationReference Range
​Mayo Clinic Laboratories​Thyroglobulin Antibody: <1.8 IU/mL
Interpretation

Current guidelines recommend measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) with a sensitive immunoassay - limit of quantification less than 1 ng/mL; for measurements of unstimulated Tg, the detection limit should be in the 0.1 to 0.2 ng/mL range.

In all cases, serum anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) should also be measured, preferably with a method that allows detection of low concentrations of TgAb. If TgAb are detected, the laboratory report should alert the ordering provider to the possibility of false-low Tg results. If the apparent Tg concentration is less than 1.0 ng/mL, the sample should be remeasured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This will allow confident detection of Tg in the presence of TgAb down to 0.5 ng/mL (risk of residual/recurrent disease <1%-3%).

Samples from patients with Tg concentrations greater than 1.0 ng/mL might not require Tg measurement by mass spectrometry, because current guidelines suggest further work-up might be necessary above this threshold. However the positive predictive value for residual/recurrent disease is modest when Tg is just above this threshold (3%-25%) in athyrotic patients. Above 10 ng/mL, the risk of residual/recurrent disease is at least 25%, with many studies showing 60% to greater than 90% risks. In selected patients, it might therefore also be useful to test TgAb positive samples by mass spectrometry, even if the Tg concentration is greater than 1.0 ng/mL, but has not yet passed the 10 ng/mL threshold. These considerations are even more relevant in patients with a known thyroid remnant of a few grams, who may always have serum Tg concentrations of 1.0 to 10 ng/mL, owing to remnant Tg secretion, regardless of the presence or absence of residual/recurrent cancer.

It has been determined that the presence of anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) in serum can lead to underestimation of Tg concentration by immunometric methods. When TgAb are present in samples with detectable Tg, the Tg values may be underestimated by up to 60% in immunoassays. In addition, some specimens containing TgAb which are negative for Tg by immunoassay tested positive by LC-MS/MS. Therefore, measuring of Tg by LC-MS/MS is the preferred method in TgAb positive patients. The listed decision levels are for thyroid cancer follow-up of athyrotic patients and apply to unstimulated and stimulated thyroglobulin measurements. Decision levels are based on best practice guidelines and the literature, which includes Mayo Clinic studies.

Decision levels for thyroid cancer patients, who are not completely athyrotic (ie, patient has some remnant normal thyroid tissue), have not been established, but are likely to be somewhat higher: remnant normal thyroid tissue contributes to serum Tg concentrations 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL per gram of remnant tissue, depending on the TSH level.

Thyroglobulin by Mass Spectrometry:

Tg <0.2 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements, and radioiodine ablation status. Undetectable Tg levels in athyrotic individuals on suppression therapy indicate a minimal risk (<1%-2%) of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =0.2 ng/mL to 2.0 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements, and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels of 0.2-2.0 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a low risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg 2.1 ng/mL to 9.9 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels of 2.1-9.9 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppression therapy indicate an increased risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =10 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels of > or =10 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a significant (>25%) risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Thyroglobulin by Immunoassay:

Tg <0.1 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels <0.1 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a minimal risk (<1%-2%) of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a low risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg 2.1 ng/mL to 9.9 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels 2.1 to 9.9 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate an increased risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =10 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels > or =10 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a significant risk (>25%) of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer. 

Outreach CPTs
CPTModifier
(if needed)
QuantityDescriptionComments
​86800​1
​84432​1​HTGT​if needed
​84432​1​TGMS​if needed
Synonyms/Keywords

​Anti Thyroglobulin Antibody, HTG (Human Thyroglobulin), TG (Thyroglobulin), Thyroglobulin Antibody, Thyroglobulin Assay for Thyroid Cancer, Thyroglobulin HTC (Human Thyro)

Test Components

​This test begins with the analysis of thyroglobulin antibody by immunoassay. If the thyroglobulin antibody result is negative (<1.8 IU/mL), then thyroglobulin testing will be performed by immunoassay.

If the thyroglobulin antibody result is positive (> or =1.8 IU/mL), then thyroglobulin testing will be performed by mass spectrometry.

Ordering Applications
Ordering ApplicationDescription
​COM​Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker Rfx (HTGR)
​Cerner​Thyroglobulin, Tumor Marker Reflex, Serum (HTGR)
If the ordering application you are looking for is not listed, contact your local laboratory for assistance.
Specimen Requirements
Specimen TypePreferred Container/TubeAcceptable Container/TubeSpecimen VolumeSpecimen Minimum Volume
(allows for 1 repeat)
Pediatric Minimum Volume
(no repeat)
​Serum Red​Red Top Tube (RTT)​1 mL​1 mL
Collection Processing

Patient Preparation: For 12 hours before specimen collection do not take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins.

Specimen Stability Information
Specimen TypeTemperatureTime
​Serum Red ​​Refrigerated (preferred)​7 days
​Frozen​30 days
Rejection Criteria
Gross hemolysis
Interference

​Thyroglobulin Antibody:

Antithyroglobulin values determined by different methodologies might vary significantly and cannot be directly compared with one another. Some patients might show to be antibody-positive by some methods and antibody-negative by others. Comparing values from different methods might lead to erroneous clinical interpretation.

Thyroglobulin by Mass Spectrometry:

Rare normal amino acid sequence variations within thyroglobulin (Tg) can cause a false-low result in the Tg mass spectrometry assay, if they happen to be present in the Tg proteotypic peptides that are used for Tg quantification.


While the exact prevalence of such changes is unknown, the validation data on large sample numbers indicate that this affects less than 1% of samples. In the heterozygote state, the result would be an apparent reduction in Tg concentration by about 50%, while the homozygous state (<0.01%) is predicted to result in total loss of signal. Therefore, if the results of the mass spectrometry measurement are much lower than those obtained previously (within 3-6 months) with an immunometric immunoassay, this possibility should be considered. In this event, alert Mayo Clinic Laboratories as soon as possible, and an attempt will be made to resolve the discrepancy.

Thyroglobulin by Immunoassay:

Thyroid autoantibodies may interfere with the measurement of Tg by immunometric methods leading to an underestimation of the Tg present. Heterophile antibodies may also interfere. Specimens with thyroglobulin concentrations greater than 250,000 ng/mL may "hook" and appear to have markedly lower levels when assayed by immunoassay.

Useful For

​Reporting of accurate thyroglobulin results, depending on the antithyroglobulin antibodies status of the patient

Accurate measurement of serum thyroglobulin in patients with known or suspected antithyroglobulin autoantibodies or possible heterophile antibodies

Test Components

​This test begins with the analysis of thyroglobulin antibody by immunoassay. If the thyroglobulin antibody result is negative (<1.8 IU/mL), then thyroglobulin testing will be performed by immunoassay.

If the thyroglobulin antibody result is positive (> or =1.8 IU/mL), then thyroglobulin testing will be performed by mass spectrometry.

Reference Range Information
Performing LocationReference Range
​Mayo Clinic Laboratories​Thyroglobulin Antibody: <1.8 IU/mL
Interpretation

Current guidelines recommend measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) with a sensitive immunoassay - limit of quantification less than 1 ng/mL; for measurements of unstimulated Tg, the detection limit should be in the 0.1 to 0.2 ng/mL range.

In all cases, serum anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) should also be measured, preferably with a method that allows detection of low concentrations of TgAb. If TgAb are detected, the laboratory report should alert the ordering provider to the possibility of false-low Tg results. If the apparent Tg concentration is less than 1.0 ng/mL, the sample should be remeasured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This will allow confident detection of Tg in the presence of TgAb down to 0.5 ng/mL (risk of residual/recurrent disease <1%-3%).

Samples from patients with Tg concentrations greater than 1.0 ng/mL might not require Tg measurement by mass spectrometry, because current guidelines suggest further work-up might be necessary above this threshold. However the positive predictive value for residual/recurrent disease is modest when Tg is just above this threshold (3%-25%) in athyrotic patients. Above 10 ng/mL, the risk of residual/recurrent disease is at least 25%, with many studies showing 60% to greater than 90% risks. In selected patients, it might therefore also be useful to test TgAb positive samples by mass spectrometry, even if the Tg concentration is greater than 1.0 ng/mL, but has not yet passed the 10 ng/mL threshold. These considerations are even more relevant in patients with a known thyroid remnant of a few grams, who may always have serum Tg concentrations of 1.0 to 10 ng/mL, owing to remnant Tg secretion, regardless of the presence or absence of residual/recurrent cancer.

It has been determined that the presence of anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) in serum can lead to underestimation of Tg concentration by immunometric methods. When TgAb are present in samples with detectable Tg, the Tg values may be underestimated by up to 60% in immunoassays. In addition, some specimens containing TgAb which are negative for Tg by immunoassay tested positive by LC-MS/MS. Therefore, measuring of Tg by LC-MS/MS is the preferred method in TgAb positive patients. The listed decision levels are for thyroid cancer follow-up of athyrotic patients and apply to unstimulated and stimulated thyroglobulin measurements. Decision levels are based on best practice guidelines and the literature, which includes Mayo Clinic studies.

Decision levels for thyroid cancer patients, who are not completely athyrotic (ie, patient has some remnant normal thyroid tissue), have not been established, but are likely to be somewhat higher: remnant normal thyroid tissue contributes to serum Tg concentrations 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL per gram of remnant tissue, depending on the TSH level.

Thyroglobulin by Mass Spectrometry:

Tg <0.2 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements, and radioiodine ablation status. Undetectable Tg levels in athyrotic individuals on suppression therapy indicate a minimal risk (<1%-2%) of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =0.2 ng/mL to 2.0 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements, and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels of 0.2-2.0 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a low risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg 2.1 ng/mL to 9.9 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels of 2.1-9.9 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppression therapy indicate an increased risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =10 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels of > or =10 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a significant (>25%) risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Thyroglobulin by Immunoassay:

Tg <0.1 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels <0.1 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a minimal risk (<1%-2%) of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a low risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg 2.1 ng/mL to 9.9 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels 2.1 to 9.9 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate an increased risk of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer.

Tg > or =10 ng/mL: Tg levels must be interpreted in the context of TSH levels, serial Tg measurements and radioiodine ablation status. Tg levels > or =10 ng/mL in athyrotic individuals on suppressive therapy indicate a significant risk (>25%) of clinically detectable recurrent papillary/follicular thyroid cancer. 

For more information visit:
Performing Laboratory Information
Performing LocationDay(s) Test PerformedReport AvailableMethodology/Instrumentation
​Mayo Clinic Laboratories​Monday through Saturday​2 to 4 daysImmunoenzymatic Assay
Reference Lab
For billing questions, see Contacts
Outreach CPTs
CPTModifier
(if needed)
QuantityDescriptionComments
​86800​1
​84432​1​HTGT​if needed
​84432​1​TGMS​if needed
For most current information refer to the Marshfield Laboratory online reference manual.