Activated Protein CV deficient
APCRV (Activated Protein C Resistance V)
Evaluation of patients with incident or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE)
Evaluation of individuals with a family history of VTE
1. Centrifuge, transfer all plasma into a vial, and centrifuge plasma again.
2. Aliquot plasma into a vial leaving 0.25 mL in the bottom of centrifuged vial.
3. Freeze plasma immediately (no longer than 4 hours after collection) at -20 degrees C, or, ideally < or =-40 degrees C
1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.
2. If priority specimen, mark request form, give reason, and request a call-back.
3. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.
This assay is highly sensitive and specific for inherited activated protein C (APC) resistance, most commonly due to the factor V Leiden mutation, but it will not detect patients with acquired APC resistance. Persons with acquired APC resistance are at similar risk for venous thromboembolism.
Preanalytical conditions of the patient and the blood specimen are extremely important for reliable performance and interpretation of testing for APC resistance. Plasmas demonstrating prolongation of clotting times (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time) for reasons other than anticoagulant effects (eg, lupuslike anticoagulants or specific coagulation factor inhibitors) generally cannot be reliably tested for the presence or absence of APC resistance. Proper preparation of the blood (plasma) specimen is extremely important to help insure accuracy of results and interpretation.
The activated protein C resistance ratio (APCRV) assay has greater than 99% sensitivity for detecting the presence of a factor V Leiden mutation. Discrepant results of plasma-based APCRV and DNA-based factor V Leiden testing may occur in recipients of liver or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants; or due to anticoagulant effects such as excess heparin; direct thrombin inhibitors argatroban (Acova), bivalirudin (Angiomax), or dabigatran (Pradaxa); or direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban (Xarelto), apixaban (Eliquis), and edoxaban (Savaysa); or a sample mix-up. Clinical correlation is suggested. If clinically indicated, consider follow-up repeat APCR testing or direct DNA-based testing for the factor V Leiden (R506Q) mutation (F5DNA / Factor V Leiden [R506Q] Mutation, Blood).
> or =2.3
Pediatric reference range has neither been established nor is available in scientific literature. The adult reference range likely would be applicable to children older than 6 months.
An activated protein C (APC) resistance ratio of less than 2.3 suggests abnormal resistance to APC of hereditary origin.
If the APC resistance test is abnormal, DNA-based testing for the factor V Leiden mutation (F5DNA / Factor V Leiden [R506Q] Mutation, Blood) may be helpful in confirming or excluding hereditary APC resistance.