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Feces collected in any preservative or fixative.
The clearance studies using 24-hour fecal specimens and serum determinations are preferred as it normalizes the large range of serum alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) concentrations and the variability in random fecal AAT concentrations. In the absence of either a 24-hour fecal collection or a contemporary serum specimen, the fecal concentration of AAT can be used as a surrogate marker.
When gastric loss of AAT is suspected (eg, Menetrier disease), AAT clearance is not a reliable indicator of protein loss as AAT is sensitive to pH <3 and is rapidly destroyed. When gastric protein loss is suspected and the AAT clearance is normal, the recommendation is to repeat testing after starting an acid suppressive medication regime.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a 54kDa glycoprotein that is resistant to degradation by digestive enzymes and is, therefore, used as an endogenous marker for the presence of blood proteins in the intestinal tract. AAT clearance is reliable for measuring protein loss distal to the pylorus. A serum sample is required to interpret results as a serum deficiency of AAT) would make the AAT fecal excretion lower and could invalidate the test utility.
Gastrointestinal protein enteropathy has been associated with regional enteritis, sprue, Whipple intestinal lipodystrophy, gastric carcinoma, allergic gastroenteropathy, intestinal lymphangiectasia, constrictive pericarditis, congenital hypogammaglobulinemia, and iron deficiency anemia associated with intolerance to cow's milk. Increased fecal excretion of AAT can be found in small and large intestine disease and is applicable to adults and children.
Patients with protein-losing enteropathies generally have alpha-1-antitrypsin fecal concentrations over 100 mg/dL.
Borderline elevations above the normal range are equivocal for protein-losing enteropathies.