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23017 Vitamin A, Serum (VITA)

Vitamin A, Serum (VITA)
Test Code: VIT-A
Synonyms/Keywords
Retinols
Useful For
Diagnosing vitamin A deficiency and toxicity
 
Monitoring vitamin A therapy​
Specimen Requirements
Fasting Required Specimen Type Preferred Container/Tube Acceptable Container/Tube Specimen Volume Specimen Minimum Volume
(allows for 1 repeat)
Pediatric Minimum Volume
(no repeat)
Yes​ ​Serum ​Red Top Tube (RTT) ​Serum Separator Tube (SST) ​0.5 mL ​0.25 mL
Collection Processing Instructions
Fasting-overnight (12-14 hours) (infants-draw prior to next feeding).
Specimen Stability Information
Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum​ ​ ​ ​Refrigerated (preferred) ​28 days
​Ambient ​28 days
​Frozen ​28 days
Performing Laboratory Information
Performing Location Day(s) Test Performed Analytical Time Methodology/Instrumentation
​Mayo Clinic Laboratories Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday​ ​2 days
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Reference Lab
Test Information

​The level of vitamin A in the plasma or serum is a reflection of the quantities of vitamin A and carotene (pro-vitamin A) ingested and absorbed by the intestine (carotene is converted to vitamin A by intestinal absorptive cells and hepatocytes).

 
Vitamin A plays an essential role in the function of the retina (adaptation to dim light), is necessary for growth and differentiation of epithelial tissue, and is required for growth of bone, reproduction, and embryonic development. Together with certain carotenoids, vitamin A enhances immune function, reducing the consequences of some infectious diseases.
 
Degenerative changes in eyes and skin are commonly observed in vitamin A deficiency. Poor adaptation of vision to darkness (night blindness) is an early symptom that may be followed by degenerative changes in the retina. In developing countries, vitamin A deficiency is the principal preventable cause of blindness. Severe or prolonged deficiency leads to dry eye (xerophthalmia) that can result in corneal ulcers, scarring, and blindness. Another important consequence of inadequate intake is acquired immunodeficiency disease, where an increased incidence of death is associated with deficient vitamin A levels. Increased susceptibility is associated with vitamin A deficiency. In patients with HIV, vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased disease progression and mortality.
 
Vitamin A in excess can be toxic. In particular, chronic vitamin A intoxication is a concern in normal adults who ingest >15 mg per day and children who ingest >6 mg per day of vitamin A over a period of several months. Manifestations are various and include dry skin, cheilosis, glossitis, vomiting, alopecia, bone demineralization and pain, hypercalcemia, lymph node enlargement, hyperlipidemia, amenorrhea, and features of pseudotumor cerebri with increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Liver fibrosis with portal hypertension may also result. Congenital malformations, like spontaneous abortions, craniofacial abnormalities, and valvular heart disease have been described in pregnant women taking vitamin A in excess. Consequently, in pregnancy, the daily dose of vitamin A should not exceed 3 mg.

 

Reference Range Information
0-6 years: 11.3-64.7 mcg/dL
7-12 years: 12.8-81.2 mcg/dL
13-17 years: 14.4-97.7 mcg/dL
> or =18 years: 32.5-78.0 mcg/dL
Interpretation
The World Health Organization recommendations supplementation when vitamin A levels fall below 20.0 mcg/dL.
 
Severe deficiency is indicated at levels <10.0 mcg/dL.
 
Vitamin A values >120.0 mcg/dL suggest hypervitaminosis A and associated toxicity.
Outreach CPTs
CPT Modifier
(if needed)
Quantity Description Comments
​84590
Synonyms/Keywords
Retinols
Ordering Applications
Ordering Application Description
​Centricity ​Vit A (Retinol)
​Cerner ​Vitamin A (60298)
If the ordering application you are looking for is not listed, contact your local laboratory for assistance.
Specimen Requirements
Fasting Required Specimen Type Preferred Container/Tube Acceptable Container/Tube Specimen Volume Specimen Minimum Volume
(allows for 1 repeat)
Pediatric Minimum Volume
(no repeat)
Yes​ ​Serum ​Red Top Tube (RTT) ​Serum Separator Tube (SST) ​0.5 mL ​0.25 mL
Collection Processing
Fasting-overnight (12-14 hours) (infants-draw prior to next feeding).
Specimen Stability Information
Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum​ ​ ​ ​Refrigerated (preferred) ​28 days
​Ambient ​28 days
​Frozen ​28 days
Useful For
Diagnosing vitamin A deficiency and toxicity
 
Monitoring vitamin A therapy​
Reference Range Information
0-6 years: 11.3-64.7 mcg/dL
7-12 years: 12.8-81.2 mcg/dL
13-17 years: 14.4-97.7 mcg/dL
> or =18 years: 32.5-78.0 mcg/dL
Interpretation
The World Health Organization recommendations supplementation when vitamin A levels fall below 20.0 mcg/dL.
 
Severe deficiency is indicated at levels <10.0 mcg/dL.
 
Vitamin A values >120.0 mcg/dL suggest hypervitaminosis A and associated toxicity.
For more information visit:
Performing Laboratory Information
Performing Location Day(s) Test Performed Analytical Time Methodology/Instrumentation
​Mayo Clinic Laboratories Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday​ ​2 days
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Reference Lab
For billing questions, see Contacts
Outreach CPTs
CPT Modifier
(if needed)
Quantity Description Comments
​84590
For most current information refer to the Marshfield Laboratory online reference manual.