Skip Ribbon Commands
Skip to main content
Sign In

22691 Manganese, Serum (MNS)

Manganese, Serum (MNS)
Test Code: MANGSO
Synonyms/Keywords
Manganese (Mn)
Useful For
​Monitoring manganese exposure
 
Nutritional monitoring
Specimen Requirements
Specimen Type Preferred Container/Tube Acceptable Container/Tube Specimen Volume Specimen Minimum Volume
(allows for 1 repeat)
Pediatric Minimum Volume
(no repeat)
​Serum Royal Blue Top Tube (RBTT)​ 1.6 mL​ 0.4 mL​
Collection Processing Instructions
1. Allow the specimen to clot for 30 minutes, and then centrifuge to separate serum from the cellular fraction. Serum must be removed from cellular fraction within 4 hours of draw. Avoid hemolysis.
2. Remove the stopper. Carefully pour specimen into a Mayo metal-free, polypropylene vial, while avoiding transfer of the cellular components of blood. Do not insert a pipet into the serum to accomplish transfer, and do not ream the specimen with a wooden stick to assist with serum transfer.
3.  Submit sample in a 7-mL Mayo metal-free, screw-capped, polypropylene vial
Additional Information: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.​
Specimen Stability Information
Specimen Type Temperature Time​Special Container
Serum​ ​ ​ Refrigerated (preferred)​ 28 days​​METAL FREE
Frozen 28 days​​METAL FREE
Ambient 28 days​​METAL FREE
Rejection Criteria
Gross hemolysis
Interference

​Specimens collected from healthy, unexposed adults have extremely low levels of manganese (Mn). Because of the high environmental concentration of Mn, contamination is always a possibility when considering elevated results. Precautions must be taken to ensure the specimen is not contaminated. Metal-free serum collection procedures must be followed and centrifuged serum must be aliquoted into an acid-washed Mayo metal-free vial.

Performing Laboratory Information
Performing Location Day(s) Test Performed Analytical Time Methodology/Instrumentation
Mayo Clinic Laboratories
Tuesday
1-6 days​
Dynamic Reaction Cell-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS)​
Reference Lab
Test Information

Manganese (Mn) is a trace essential element with many industrial uses. Mining and iron and steel production have been implicated as occupational sources of exposure. It is principally used in steel production to improve hardness, stiffness, and strength. Mn is a normal constituent of air, soil, water, and food. The primary non-occupational source of exposure is by eating food or Mn-containing nutritional supplements. Vegetarians who consume foods rich in Mn such as grains, beans, and nuts, as well as, heavy tea drinkers may have a higher intake than the average person. People who smoke tobacco or inhale second-hand smoke are also exposed to Mn at higher levels than non-smokers.

Inhalation is the primary source of entry for Mn, but is also partially absorbed (3%-5%) through the gastrointestinal tract. Only very small amounts of Mn are absorbed dermally. Signs of toxicity may appear quickly, and neurological symptoms are rarely reversible. Mn toxicity is generally recognized to progress through 3 stages. Levy describes these stages. "The first stage is a prodrome of malaise, somnolence, apathy, emotional lability, sexual dysfunction, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, and headaches. If there is continued exposure, progression to a second stage may occur, with psychological disturbances, including impaired memory and judgement, anxiety, and sometimes psychotic manifestations such as hallucinations. The third stage consists of progressive bradykinesia, dysarthrian axial and extremity dystonia, paresis, gait disturbances, cogwheel rigidity, intention tremor, impaired coordination, and a mask-like face. Many of those affected may be permanently and completely disabled."(1) Mn is removed from the blood by the liver where it's conjugated with bile and excreted.

As listed in the United States National Agriculture Library, Mn adequate intake is 1.6 to 2.3 mg/day for adults. This level of intake is easily achieved without supplementation by a diverse diet including fruits and vegetables, which have higher amounts of Mn than other food types. Patients on a long-term parenteral nutrition should receive Mn supplementation and should be monitored to ensure that circulatory levels of Mn are appropriate.

Reference Range Information
0-17 years:  Not established
> or = 18 years:  0.5-1.2 ng/mL
Interpretation
​Serum manganese results above the reference values suggest recent exposure. Serum concentrations in combination with brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and neurological assessment may be used to detect excessive exposure. 
Outreach CPTs
CPT Modifier
(if needed)
Quantity Description Comments
​83785
Synonyms/Keywords
Manganese (Mn)
Ordering Applications
Ordering Application Description
​Centricity ​Manganese, S (8413)
​Cerner ​Manganese Level, Serum (8413)
​COM ​Manganese, Serum
If the ordering application you are looking for is not listed, contact your local laboratory for assistance.
Specimen Requirements
Specimen Type Preferred Container/Tube Acceptable Container/Tube Specimen Volume Specimen Minimum Volume
(allows for 1 repeat)
Pediatric Minimum Volume
(no repeat)
​Serum Royal Blue Top Tube (RBTT)​ 1.6 mL​ 0.4 mL​
Collection Processing
1. Allow the specimen to clot for 30 minutes, and then centrifuge to separate serum from the cellular fraction. Serum must be removed from cellular fraction within 4 hours of draw. Avoid hemolysis.
2. Remove the stopper. Carefully pour specimen into a Mayo metal-free, polypropylene vial, while avoiding transfer of the cellular components of blood. Do not insert a pipet into the serum to accomplish transfer, and do not ream the specimen with a wooden stick to assist with serum transfer.
3.  Submit sample in a 7-mL Mayo metal-free, screw-capped, polypropylene vial
Additional Information: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.​
Specimen Stability Information
Specimen Type Temperature Time​Special Container
Serum​ ​ ​ Refrigerated (preferred)​ 28 days​​METAL FREE
Frozen 28 days​​METAL FREE
Ambient 28 days​​METAL FREE
Rejection Criteria
Gross hemolysis
Interference

​Specimens collected from healthy, unexposed adults have extremely low levels of manganese (Mn). Because of the high environmental concentration of Mn, contamination is always a possibility when considering elevated results. Precautions must be taken to ensure the specimen is not contaminated. Metal-free serum collection procedures must be followed and centrifuged serum must be aliquoted into an acid-washed Mayo metal-free vial.

Useful For
​Monitoring manganese exposure
 
Nutritional monitoring
Reference Range Information
0-17 years:  Not established
> or = 18 years:  0.5-1.2 ng/mL
Interpretation
​Serum manganese results above the reference values suggest recent exposure. Serum concentrations in combination with brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and neurological assessment may be used to detect excessive exposure. 
For more information visit:
Performing Laboratory Information
Performing Location Day(s) Test Performed Analytical Time Methodology/Instrumentation
Mayo Clinic Laboratories
Tuesday
1-6 days​
Dynamic Reaction Cell-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS)​
Reference Lab
For billing questions, see Contacts
Outreach CPTs
CPT Modifier
(if needed)
Quantity Description Comments
​83785
For most current information refer to the Marshfield Laboratory online reference manual.