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C12-C22, Fatty Acid Profile, Essential, Essential Fatty Acids, Long-Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA), Omega 3, Omega 6, Omega 7, Omega 9, Omega fatty acids, Soft-FAPEP, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Lauric Acid, Myristic Acid, Hexadecenoic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Gamma-Linolenic Acid, Alpha-Linolenic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid, Vaccenic Acid, Stearic Acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Arachidonic Acid, Mead Acid, Homo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid, Arachidic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid, Docosapentaenoic Acid, Docosatetraenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Nervonic Acid, C12:0, C14:0, C16:1w9, C16:1w7, C16:0, C18:3w6, C18:3w3, C18:2w6, C18:1w9, C18:1w7, C18:0, C20:5w3, C20:4w6, C20:3w9, C20:3w6, C20:0, C22:5w3, C22:6w3, C22:5w6, C22:4w6, C22:1, C24:1, EPA, DHA, DPA, Triene:Tetraene Ratio
1. For nutritional assessment, patient should fast overnight (12-14 hours); for patients with a suspected fatty acid oxidation disorder, collect prior to next feeding as fasting is contraindicated.
2. Patient must not consume any alcohol for 24 hours before the specimen is drawn.
For nutritional assessment, a 12- to 14-hour fast is required; however, infants or persons suspected of having a fatty acid oxidation disorder should not fast before testing owing to the possibility of acute metabolic decompensation. Instead, collect the specimen after the longest fast possible, just before feeding. In the case of a patient on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), specimen can be collected as normal.
Fats are important sources of energy for tissues and for the function and integrity of cellular membranes. Deficiencies are commonly caused by inadequate dietary intake of lipids due to an unbalanced diet, long-term parenteral nutrition, or by intestinal malabsorption. Linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, are considered essential fatty acids in that they cannot be made by the body and are essential components of the diet.
The major clinical manifestations associated with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) include dermatitis, increased water permeability of the skin, increased susceptibility to infection, and impaired wound healing. Biochemical abnormalities may be detected before the onset of recognizable clinical manifestations. EFAD can be detected by diminished levels of the essential fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, as well as by increases in the triene:tetraene ratio.
Excess dietary fatty acids have been linked to the onset of cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of linoleic acid can contribute to overproduction of the proinflammatory 2-series local hormones.